Monday, November 12, 2018

First Generation of Computer (1942-1955)

First Generation of Computer:

First Generation  Computer

In the First Generation of Computer, a vacuum tube was used. A vacuum tube was a fragile glass device, which used filaments as a source of electronics and could control and amplify electronic signals. In First Generation of Computer vacuum was the only high-speed electronic switching device available in those days.

These vacuum tube computers could perform computations in milliseconds and were referred to as the first-generation computer.

vacuum tube images

The memory of these computers used electromagnetic relays, and all data and instruction were fed into the system from punched cards.

The instructions were written in machine and assembly languages because high-level programming languages were introduced much later.

Since machine and assembly language are very difficult to work with, only a few specialists understood how to program these early computers.

First Generation of Computer images

Characteristic of  First-Generation computers:

The characteristics of the first generation computer are as follows:
  1. They were the fastest calculating devices of their time.
  2. They were too bulky in size, requiring large rooms for installation.
  3. They used thousands of vacuum tubes that emitted a large amount of heat and burnt out frequently. Hence, the room/areas in which these computers were located had to be properly air-conditioned.
  4. Each vacuum tube consumed about half a watt of power. Since a computer typically used more than ten thousand vacuum tubes, the power consumption of these computers was very high.
  5. As vacuum tubes used filaments. They had a limited life. Because a computer used thousands of vacuum tubes, these computers were prone to frequent hardware failures.
  6. Due to the low mean time between failures, these computers required constant maintenance.
  7. In these computers, thousands of individuals components were assembled manually by hand into an electronic circuit. Hence, commercial production of these computers was difficult and costly.
  8. Since these computers were difficult to program and use, they had limited commercial use.


Summary of First-Generation of Computer

Generation period

1942-1955

Key hardware Technologies

Vacuum tubes, electromagnetic relay memory, punched cards secondary storage

Key Software Technologies

Machine and assembly languages, storage program concept, mostly scientific applications

Key Characteristics 

Bulky in size, high unreliable, limited commercial use, commercial production difficult and costly, difficult to use.

Some Representative Systems 


Images of First Generation Computer

First Generation of Computer images

First Generation of Computer images

First Generation of Computer images

images of first generation of computer

images of first generation of computer


Source Wikipedia

Also Read:

What are Components of Database Environment

Codd's 12 Rules For the Relational database

Saturday, November 10, 2018

What are Components of Database Environment

Components of Database Environment

Components of Database Environment

Tuesday, November 6, 2018

Types of Transmission Modes [Simplex, Half duplex, Full Duplex]

Types of Transmission Modes

Transmission Modes
  • Simplex Transmission Mode
  • Half Duplex Transmission Mode
  • Full Duplex Transmission Mode

Transmission modes:

The term transmission mode is used to define the direction of signal flow between two linked devices. Depending upon the time intervals in the process of transmission and the number of bits to be transmitted, following transmission modes are the most common:

Types of Transmission Modes

Simplex Transmission Mode

Simplex Transmission Mode

Simplex transmission may also be called one-way transmission as it takes place only in a single direction.

This type of transmission could be used in the case when the sending devices such as temperature sensor never require a response from the receiving computer.

Example of Simplex Transmission Mode

The common example of this type of data transmission are Television and Radio transmission that takes place from their stations in one direction and are not responded to by a TV or radio set.

Half Duplex Transmission Mode

Half Duplex Transmission Mode

In this case, data transmission may take place in both directions but not at the same time 

Example of Half Duplex Transmission Mode

An example of Half Duplex Transmission may be Walkie-Talkie sets.

This type of data transmission may mostly be found between central computers and their terminals.

Full Duplex Transmission Mode


Full Duplex Transmission Mode

In Full-Duplex transmission data is sent in both directions at the same time such as phone calls.

Most interactive computer applications use full duplex transmission of data.

Example of Full Duplex Transmission Mode

The best example of Full Duplex Transmission Mode is, When we communicate through mobiles or Telephones we can send and receive data at the same time so Mobile communication is the best example of Full Duplex Transmission Mode

Asynchronous Transmission Mode


Asynchronous Transmission Mode

In this mode the individual characters are transmitted at irregular intervals for example as soon as the user types them, they get transmitted.

The bits representing individual characters are enclosed by start and stop bits.

Parity bits are also added to the character code for providing a check against incorrect transmissions.

Thus complete characters may need 10 bits to be transmitted i.e., a start bit, 7 bits for the character code, a parity bit and a stop bit.

This mode of transmission is used for lower-speed transmission e.g on a local area network consisting of a number of linked PCs.

A major shortcoming of this data transmission mode is that start, stop and parity bits with every individual character considerably increase the network traffic and this mode is therefore not suitable for long-range transmission of data.

Here parity bit is a special bit that counts the numbers of 0s and 1s in the binary code of a character to be transmitted.

Two types of parity may be even and odd parity e.g in the 8-bit representation of a character, 10010011 has even parity of 0s as well as 1s whereas 110100011 has odd parity for 0s and 1s.

This parity value is checked for verifying that if it remains the same after transmission as was before transmission then there is no transmission error at all however if the parity changes from even to odd or the number  of 0s and 1s contained within the binary code changes, then the receiver request  sender to attempt for another transmission of same data as the current transmission was erroneous.

Synchronous Transmission Mode

Synchronous Transmission Mode

In this mode of data transmission, the timing signals synchronize the transmission at the sending and receiving ends so that there is no need for start and stop bits along with each individual character. 

However, these start and stop bits may be used at the beginning and end of the whole block of character.

This mode of transmission is more suitable for longer transmission like remote job entry however it requires more expensive and sophisticated equipment.

Also Read:

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Monday, November 5, 2018

What is recursion in C++?

What is recursion in C++ with Example?

A programming Technique in which a function calls itself is known as recursion in C++. A function that calls itself is called recursive function. The recursion is a powerful technique.

Friday, November 2, 2018

Client-Server Architecture (Complete Detail)

 Client-Server Architecture Model

Client-Server Architecture

Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Islamic Studies MCQS with Answer-Islamiat MCQS


Islamic Studies MCQS with Answer-Islamiat MCQs

Here are some Important MCQS OF ISLAMIC STUDIES/Islamiat MCQs These ISLAMIC STUDIES MCQs are very important for any competitive exams like NTS, PTS, MTS, OTS, AND JTS.

islamic studies mcqs for nts,pts,mts,ots,jts,atomic energy online preparation







The following prophet suffered from blindness in his old ages:

·        Hazrat Yunus(AS)
·        Hazrat ishaq(AS)
·        Hazrat ismaeel(AS)
·         Hazrat yaqoob (AS)

Hazrat yousaf(AS) was the son of:

·        Hazrat ishaq(AS)
·        Hazrat ismaeel(AS)
·        Hazrat yaqoob (AS)
·        None of the above

The mountains would break by the miracle of:

·        Hazrat yaqoob (AS)
·        Hazrat ismaeel (AS)
·        Hazrat ishaq (AS)
·        Hazrat yahya (AS)

Hazrat musa (AS) married the daughter of prophet:

·        Hazrat yusha (AS)
·        Hazrat shoaib (AS)
·        Hazrat loot (AS)
·        Hazrat uzair (AS)

He scarified a bull placed woods on it and the fire came from the sky to cook that meat. Which prophet is credited with this miracle?

·        Hazrat dawood (AS)
·        Hazrat sulaiman (AS)
·        Hazrat illyas (AS)
·        Hazrat uzair (AS)

After sleeping for a 100 years he again woke up:

·        Hazrat uzair (AS)
·        Hazrat zul-al-kafl (AS)
·        Hazrat yusha (AS)
·        None of these

As a result of hazrat zakrias (AS) prayer the following prophet was born?

·        Hazrat isa(AS)
·        Hazrat uziar (AS)
·        Hazrat imran (AS)
·        Hazrat yahya (AS)

Hazrat yousaf (AS) was thrown into a well by his brothers. What was his age at that time?

·        10 year
·        15 year
·        20 year
·        25 year

Hazrat yousaf  (AS) remained in the well for:

·        5 days
·        10 days
·        3 days
·        15 days

Hazrat yousaf (AS) put into the jail by the king of Egypt. He remained behind the bars for:

·        3 years
·        5 years
·        10 years
·        15 years

Hazrat yousaf (AS) and hazrat yaqoob (AS) met each other after a period of:

·        20 year
·        30 year
·        40 year
·        50 year

The following prophet was the maternal grandfather of hazrat ayub (AS):

·        Hazrat musa (AS)
·        Hazrat haroon (AS)
·        Hazrat loot (AS)
·        None of the above

Hazrat ayub (AS) was famous for his quality of:

·        Generosity
·        Patience
·        Sympathy
·        All of the above

The nation of ………committed embezzlement in the trusts.

·        Hazrat saleh (AS)
·        Hazrat shoiab (AS)
·        Hazrat illyas (AS)
·        Hazrat idress

He was given the title of “speaker of the prophets”(khatib ul anbia)

·        Hazrat hood (AS)
·        Hazrat zakria (AS)
·        Hazrat shoiab (AS)
·        None of the above

He wept too much over the destruction of his nation that he got blinded:

·        Hazrat loot (AS)
·        Hazrat uzair (AS)
·        Hazrat hood (AS)
·        Hazrat shoiab (AS)

Which prophet had to commit a murder at the age of 30?

·        Hazrat musa (AS)
·        Hazrat isa (AS)
·        Hazrat yaha (AS)
·        None of the above

When the army of pharaoh was pursuing the Israelis, hazrat musa (AS) crossed the following sea:

    The Mediterranean sea
    The red sea
   The dead sea
     None of the above

When hazrat illyas (AS) prayed for his nation, it rained after a period of:

·        2 year
·        3 years
·        3 and half
·        5 years

At the time of Bait-ul-makda’s destruction all the copies of Turait were  destroyed and scattered. He reassembled turait:

·        Hazrat haroon (AS)
·        Hazrat zakria (AS)
·        Hazrat uzair (AS)
·        None of the above

·       Which prophet would ride a donkey?

·        Hazrat haroon (AS)
·        Hazrat zakria (AS)
·        Hazrat  yahya (AS)
·        Hazrat uzair (AS)

At the order of king bakht nasr, hazrat uzair (AS) spent…… years in jail:

·        50
·        60
·        70
·        90

Taloot  was the father-in-law of…….

·        Hazrat dawood (AS)
·        Hazrat sulaiman  (AS)
·        Hazrat yaqoob (AS)
·        Hazrat yousaf (AS)

He was good player of flute:

·        Hazrat yusha (AS)
·        Hazrat hood (AS)
·        Hazrat yahya (AS)
·        Hazrat dawood (AS)

He knew the language of the birds (besides hazrat sulaiman (AS)):

·        Hazrat illyas (AS)
·        Hazrat saleh (AS)
·        Hazrat shaoib (AS)
·        Hazrat dawood (AS)

The fountain of metal……..flowed for hazrat sulaiman (AS) as a miracle

·        Gold
·        Silver
·        Copper
·        None of the above

Hazrat sulaiman (AS) founded the following famous mosque:

·        Al-aqsa
·        Al-kartaba
·        Blue mosque of Istanbul
·        None of the above

The following bird would convey the message of hazrat sulaiman (AS) to the queen saba:

·        Dove
·        Pigeon
·        The woodpecker
·        None of the above

Which prophet would earn his living by making wallets:

·        Hazrat dawood(AS)
·        Hazrat hood(AS)
·        Hazrat sulaiman(AS)
·        None of the above,

Which prophet has been called as Zun-noon in the quran?

·        Hazrat yousaf (AS)
·        Hazrat hood (AS)
·        Hazrat yahya (AS)
·        Hazrat younas (AS)


islamic studies mcqs for nts,pts,mts,ots,jts,atomic energy online preparation part 2

Islamic Studies MCQS  part 2

He was a carpenter:
·        Hazrat ishaq(AS)
·        Hazrat ismaeel(AS)
·        Hazrat zakria (AS)
·        None of the above