Third Generation of Computer
Characteristics of Third-Generation Computer
- They were more powerful than second-generation computers. They were capable of performing about 1 million instruction per second.
- They were smaller than second-generation computers requiring smaller space.
- They consumed less power and dissipated less heat than second-generation computers. The rooms areas in which third-generation computers were located still required to be properly air-conditioned.
- They were more reliable and less prone to hardware failures than second-generation computers requiring lower maintenance cost.
- They had faster and larger primary and secondary storage as compared to second-generation computers.
- They were generation-purpose machines suitable for both scientific and commercial applications.
- Their manufacturing did not require manual assembly of individual components into electronic circuit resulting in reduced human labor and cost involved at the assembly stage. Hence, commercial production of these systems was easier and cheaper. However, highly sophisticated technology and expensive setup were required for the manufacture of IC chips.
- Standardization of high-level programming languages allowed programs written for one computer to easily ported to execute on other computers.
- Timesharing operating system allowed interactive usage and simultaneous use of these systems by multiple users.
- Timesharing operating system helped in drastically improving the productivity of programmers cutting down the time and cost of program development by several folds.
- Timesharing operating system also made on-line systems feasible resulting in usage of these systems for new online applications.
- Unbundling of software from hardware gave users of these systems ana opportunity to invest only in the software of their need and value.
- Minicomputers of third-generation made computers affordable even by smaller companies.
Summary of Third Generation
Summary of computer Third Generation is given below:
Key Hardware Technologies
ICs with SSI and MSI technologies, Large magnetic core memory, large capacity magnetic disks and tapes secondary storage, a microcomputer
Key Software Technologies
Timesharing operating system, standardization of high-level languages, unbundling of software from hardware
Faster, smaller, more reliable, easier and cheaper to produce commercially, easier to use and easier to upgrade than previous generation systems, scientific, commercial and interactive online application
- IBM 360
- PDP 8
- PDP 11
- CDC 6600